|ProTecta Synthetic Engine Treatment: ASTM-D-2783|
ASTM-D-2783 Standard Method for MEASUREMENT OF EXTREME-PRESSURE PROPERTIES OF LUBRICATING FLUIDS (FOUR-BALL METHOD)
This method covers the determination of the load-carrying properties of lubricating fluids. The following two determinations are made:
i. Load-wear index and
ii. Weld point by means of the four-ball extreme-pressure (EP) tester
The tester is operated with one steel ball under load rotating against three steel balls held stationary in the form of a cradle. Test lubricant covers the lower three balls. The rotating speed is 1760 ± 40 rpm. The machine and test lubricant are brought to 18.33 to 35.0°C (65 to 95°F) and then a series of tests of 10-second duration are made at increasing loads until welding occurs. Ten tests are made below the welding point. If ten loads have not been run when welding occurs and the scars at loads below seizure are within 5% of the compensation line then no further runs are necessary. The total can be brought to ten by assuming that loads below the last non-seizure load will produce wear scars equal to the "compensation scar diameter".
This method, used for specification purposes, differentiates between lubricating fluids having low, medium, and high level of extreme pressure properties. The user of this method should determine to his own satisfaction whether results of this test procedure correlate with field performance or other bench test machines.
All products, except Motorkote™, were tested without dilution at 100% concentration by Petro-Lubricant Test Labs, Inc. in New Jersey. Motorkote™ values were taken from their website thus we are unable to vouch for accuracy. It should be noted that we make no claims of any products tested except to provide the values through conducting the American Society of Testing Materials standardized test D-2783 as performed by the independent laboratory.
So Are Additives that Reduce Extreme Pressure Really Necessary?
According to the American Petroleum Institute (API) or the major oil companies spokesman, which is published in their Motor Oil Guide, they claim the following: "Extreme pressure conditions can develop between heavily loaded parts from lack of lubrication, inadequate clearance, extreme heat, and sometimes as a result of using the wrong type or grade of lubricant for the operating conditions of the engine. In modern engines the valve train with its cams, valve lifters, push rods, valve stem tips, and parts of the rocker arms operate under extreme pressure because they carry heavy loads on very small contact areas. Unit loading, which may be as high as 200,000 pounds per square inch, is many times greater than the loads on the connecting rod bearings or on the piston pins." Because of higher unit loading, higher engine speeds, and the smaller size of certain parts, modern engines have many components that operate under boundary or extreme pressure conditions much of the time".
Do Motor Oils Contain Extreme Pressure Additives?
Research has shown that NO motor oils contain extreme pressure additives presently. This includes major motor oil company's petroleum and synthetic products as well as specialty synthetic motor oil producers such as Amsoil® , Redline®, and Royal Purple®.
What About Wear At Start Up?
This is a question that gets asked a lot and many of the additive companies mention this in their marketing. The reason for this is that under some conditions it is not possible to maintain a lubricating film between moving parts, and thus intermittent metal-to-metal contact occurs. Generally this happens between high spots on sliding surfaces. Under such conditions the load is only partially supported by the motor oil film. What happens is the film is ruptured, which causes the metal-to-metal contact. When this occurs, heat is caused by the metal surfaces rubbing against each other.
According to the API "unless counteracted by proper additive treatment, the result is either immediate seizure or the tearing apart and roughening of the surfaces. Boundary lubrication conditions always exist during engine starting and often during the operation of a new or rebuilt engine. Boundary lubrication is also found around the top piston ring where oil supply is limited, temperatures are high, and a reversal of piston motion occurs." This is why ProTecta relies on "inter-metallic" extreme pressure additives to reduce wear and protect where heat can shear the motor oil.